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It was most likely shut down during the Chinese occupation of , because it would otherwise have challenged the exclusive right of the Chinese official astrologers to conduct and interpret astronomical observations. One can conjecture that the institution was re-opened soon after the retreat of Chinese army, and remained functional throughout the 17th century, when the copy shown in Fig.

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The Directorate would thus have been responsible for conducting observations, interpreting astronomical and meteorological data, performing computations of the calendar, predicting eclipses, and training future employees. Most likely this institution had a specialized library holding books on astronomy and astrology that were not supposed to circulate outside of the office. The records of eclipses in the Annals are not distributed homogenously: there are 21 eclipses for the period from BC to BC, one eclipse for each of the years AD 41, , and , 34 and then a series of 45 eclipses for the period from AD to The printed books usually bear the dates of publication, and these dates are comparatively recent, from the late 19th to the early 20th century.

These late dates of print do not necessarily correspond to the actual time of compilation; however, without substantial evidence to the contrary, it seems reasonable to suggest that most of the extant Vietnamese materials on astrology were physically produced relatively late, even though, hypothetically, they might have been based on earlier sources.

This statement does not deny that historically much earlier astrological literature may well have existed in Vietnam.

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There are two reasons to claim so: firstly, the official institutions dealing with astronomical and astrological matters established in independent Vietnam in the early 11th century must have possessed a number of texts pertaining to their activities; secondly, there are mentions of influential astrological works compiled by Vietnamese scholars which are no longer extant.

If, according to legends, the fire that occurred during the sack of the capital by the Chams in indiscriminately destroyed a number of unspecified libraries, the Chinese invaders who allegedly seized a large number of books and transported them to China most probably especially targeted texts seen as symbolically affirming the independence of the Vietnamese state, that is, first of all, local chronicles, calendars, astronomical and astrological texts.


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This is why the list of primary astrological sources found in the bibliography below cannot be considered complete; nevertheless, it allows us to see, at least to a certain extent, which types of astrological texts were most frequently reproduced and commented upon. The discussion is subdivided into two parts: firstly, I will introduce the three major systems of Chinese astrology and briefly present the extant Vietnamese treatises apparently influenced by them; secondly, I will, equally briefly, discuss the structure of a Vietnamese treatise based on a Chinese prototype.

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In China, this system was adopted by the Astrological Bureau during the Tang dynasty and was used through the Song dynasty The divinatory procedure involved manipulation with a divinatory board or, possibly, a diagram which featured a central circle and four concentric circular layers subdivided into 16 sectors each. The first layer was filled with numbers from 1 to 4 and from 6 to 9, forming, together with the number 5 in the central circle, a magic square; the first circular layer also contained 8 trigrams and some cyclical signs.

As Ho suggests, the applications of this method were mainly related to military affairs, yet there were also cases when the divination was concerned with natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, thunderstorms, and even eclipses. Several Chinese editions of this Chinese treatise exist, the earliest is a Ming dynasty manuscript and there are several editions dating from the Qing dynasty.

Meanwhile, two of the seven texts, [A49] and [A50], are handwritten copies of unidentified Chinese printed originals. Unfortunately, none of these manuscript texts is dated. Both are compiled in classical Chinese by anonymous authors; the dates of their compilation are unknown. A cursory analysis shows that the answer is in the affirmative, but the situation is far from being simple. It is interesting that in the Daozang the subtitle of this section is missing p.

How and when this alternative version of the treatise reached the Vietnamese diviners will probably remain unknown. An investigation of the extant written sources provided in the present paper is only one of them; another plausible methodology would be a study of the written reports of the Western missionaries active in Vietnam since the early 17th century, as well as of those by Western and Chinese travelers and merchants. For a study of the present-day situation, the results of recent anthropological field studies could be used.

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Each approach has its weak points. If one studies the reports of missionaries, merchants and travelers, the rare mentions of indigenous practices of divination make it clear that their study was not central to the scholarly agenda of the missionaries and explorers, and, moreover, the rationale of divinatory practices as well as the relevant documents were never disclosed to them by the Vietnamese diviners.

All the discussed materials turned out to be either copies of Chinese texts sometimes altered or abridged or works based upon Chinese prototypes. The history of their transmission to Vietnam is obscure; the majority of the extant Vietnamese texts are not dated, and those dated were produced usually, printed relatively late. However, as the history of astrological institutions demonstrates, astrology certainly started being practiced for the purposes of the Vietnamese state as early as the 11th century; unfortunately, it remains unknown how and when the earlier Chinese astrological texts found their way to the breakaway province after the 10th century, and what they were exactly.

Each text has a reference number used in the body of this paper; for example, A35 refers to the text listed in this section under number The dates of compilation and production, the name of the author s are mentioned in the cases when they are known; if they are not provided, it means that they remain unknown to me. BNV R. TG ; L Printed in A manuscript dated Prints of , , and A MS copy dated Taipei: Guoli zhongyang tushuguan.

SL — [Anon. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan. Arhem , Nikolas Boltz , Judith M. A survey of Taoist literature: Tenth to Seventeenth Centuries. Chapuis , Oscar Westport, Greenwood Press. Coulet , Georges Dumoutier , Gustave Dumoutier , Gustave nov. Dumoutier , Gustave July-Aug. She has been involved in several controversies, including the award of a Doctorate in Sociology for her thesis which argued that astrology was being oppressed by science.


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Her work was contested by the scientific community ; criticisms included the alleged failure to work within the field of sociology and also lacking the necessary scientific rigour for a doctoral thesis in any scientific field. The university and jury who awarded the degree were harshly criticised, though both they and Teissier had supporters and defenders. In , Teissier unsuccessfully sued the Wikimedia Foundation , claiming that the French Wikipedia article about her damaged her reputation.

She has also worked as a model, notably for Coco Chanel. In she became a student of the astrologer Henri Joseph Gouchon on the advice of Federico Fellini.


  • Élizabeth Teissier!
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  • When is the next best day for me to speak? Could you check for me? Teissier sparked controversy and denunciation in September [28] when she said, in an interview with the Swiss daily newspaper Le Matin , that "in an astrological chart, you can see if you have a predisposition to cancer, and the type of cancer in question" and that "astrology has never killed anyone, unlike medicine".

    The decision to award Teissier's doctorate was controversial, and several sociologists also publicly challenged its legitimacy. A petition signed by over sociologists was sent to Professor Pierre Daumard , the President of the university; [41] he responded that Teissier had complied with all university requirements and it is not his place to question the "guarantees of the scientific validity of the thesis" from the independent jury. In July , Teissier sued the Wikimedia Foundation , saying the article about her on the French Wikipedia damaged her reputation, and required her to have the right of response.

    She lost the original trial and appeal. After blowing people away with their red carpet appearances, their first child, Lily-Rose Depp was born in , followed by their second child, Jack Depp, in Living between LA and France, the couple continued to be the glamorous ideal of a show business marriage throughout the s, until they separated in Bohemian style With her slender, feline figure, Vanessa Paradis has something of an irresistible, magnetic childlike quality.

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    From her adolescent jeans and t-shirt phase, the singer graduated to a folk-inspired style upon moving to New York, which then evolved into a more bourgeois-bohemian look during her time with Johnny Depp. But the Chanel muse can also slip back into her signature French look, with timeless, classic pieces. She is made for this. Horoscope du jour.