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Beijing Toutes les destinations. Inscription Connexion Aide. Fermer Rechercher. Accueil Chine Huabei Beijing. In fact, twice the power required was available at all times, through the duplication of every single piece of equipment needed to lift the bascules. This meant that stokers had to feed the boilers with up to 20 tons of coal a week so that steam was constantly generated to drive the hp pumping engines.

Because the bridge needed erratic bursts of power at very short notice, as opposed to prolonged effort, water was pumped first to six ton accumulators. These then kept it under constant pressure, ready to be released — by the mere turning of a handle — as soon as the bascules needed to be raised.

The high pressure water was drawn off from the accumulators and conveyed through two six inch pipes to the lifting engines in each pier. The energy dissipated, the water then returned to the pumping engines via a seven inch return pipe. The secret? Counterweighting their ends by an additional tons, making the total weight of each bascule 1, tons! They operated, in effect, like giant seesaws bascule is French for seesaw , revolving on a massive steel pivot about a quarter of the way along their length.

In practice, the bascules were seldom opened to their full extent — full opening was reserved for special occasions. And what could be more special than the day of the Royal Opening of Tower Bridge itself? The Lancashire boilers were each 7ft in diameter and 30ft long with double fire boxes. They provided steam at pounds per square inch which drove the pumps supplying the hydraulic system.

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The pumps delivered water at a pressure of pounds per square inch into the hydraulic system. These housed the controls for operating the bridge, along with the pressure gauge panel and indicators. Each engine was a three cylinder single acting machine, and had its own integral brake.

The drive was taken through reduction gearing to the shafts which drove the bascule. For this was the day of its spectacular Royal Opening, when it seemed all of London had turned out to raise a cheer. All over the bridge and round about, there were flags and bunting, flowers and crimson cloth, as far as the eye could see. The river, too, was awash with vessels, big and small — barges, sailing boats and steamships — many booked weeks in advance by those keen to catch the best view.

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When the royal couple arrived at Tower Bridge, it was to the sound of stirring music, courtesy of the Band of the Royal Artillery. But this was soon drowned by the roars of the crowd as the carriage crossed and recrossed the bridge. They finally halted before the Royal Pavilion, extravagantly draped in pink and green and covered in pale pink roses. Here the Prince of Wales, on behalf of his mother, Queen that was mounted on a pedestal and linked to the hydraulic equipment, and declared Tower Bridge open. Up rose the bascules, silently and with such majesty that the noisy crowd, for a moment, became hushed Their duty over, the royals returned to Westminster in the Palm, a steamboat owned by the Victoria Steamboat Association.

But if they were on their way home, the crowd were most certainly not. And the happiest party must have been that taking place on the south shore of the Thames, where all those involved in the building of the bridge, together with their wives and children, were being treated to the day out of their lives. Then, in a deafening shout of applause, which soared as only a British cheer can soar But the most significant change since is without doubt the decline in river traffic.

When Tower Bridge was first opened, ships could use it 24 hours a day and did so times in the first month of its operation. Today it opens up to fifteen times a week, and then only with 24 hours notice. Despite their stunning views over the river, the high level walkways failed to realise their predicted popularity — mainly because the bascules opened and shut so quickly, pedestrians preferred to wait!

In they were closed by Parliament. Tower Bridge remains in its present superb condition largely because most of its alterations were anticipated well in advance. The bridge led a truly charmed life during the World Wars, emerging unscathed from the First, and sustaining a small amount of damage to its southern shore span in the Second. In comparison, the Tower of London suffered fifteen direct hits! It seems that Tower Bridge was of more use to German bombers as a landmark to guide them to the rest of the City.

The bridge has, however, witnessed its fair share of incidents over the last years. In , for example, Frank McClean became the first man to fly between the bascules and the walkways in a Short biplane, much to the amazement of onlookers. Since that time six other flyers have repeated the feat. In W. But though the plan was given serious consideration, it was, thankfully, never put into action. Then in , a bus full of passengers had to leap from one bascule to another, when one began to rise whilst the bus was still driving along it, through a misunderstanding between watchmen and the two bridge drivers.

The positive outcome was the installation of a public address system, a close-circuit monitoring system, new road and pedestrian gates. When Tower Bridge was built, it was acclaimed as a triumph of engineering. By , however, modern technology finally caught up with it and its steam-driven power system was replaced with a new electric and oil hydraulic system, with considerable savings in manpower.

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Five years later, the old control system for lifting the bascules was also replaced with push button controls and the metalwork repainted in patriotic red, white and blue. A seven tonnes per axle limit was therefore imposed, immediately reducing the number of vehicles by 10, a day. But it was in that Tower Bridge underwent a major change. The walkways were re-opened, the engine rooms given public access and cast-iron decorations, removed during World War II, were replaced with lightweight reproductions. It was quite an occasion, too, marked by a large procession of ships and a bevy of honoured guests, one of whom, Miss Beatrice Quick, had also crossed the bridge at its opening the first time round.

With its state-of-the-art animatronics, interactive computers, model reconstructions and modern audio techniques, Tower Bridge was once again in the forefront of modern technology. Indeed, companies were not only quick to take advantage of the publicity surrounding its opening, but have been using it in advertising ever since. It has certainly assumed a worldwide significance that its creators would have never dreamed possible.

En ap J. Tous grands et encore vivants, sprats frais, un penny l'assiette! Un penny pour une botte de navets! En , il fut converti en un tunnel ferroviaire. Quels projets brillants et originaux les plus grands architectes du moment allaient-ils soumettre? Palmer, le pont roulant de M. Barclay, le passage sous le fleuve de M.

Toutes les solutions avaient des arguments pour elles, mais aucune ne convenait parfaitement. Le projet de M. L'arcade sous-fluviale de J. Le secret d'une telle aisance? En , W. Mais c'est en que Tower Bridge subit un changement majeur. Holden en With our Freedom of Choice touring options you may instead wish to travel out of the city centre to Sergiev Posad, home to one of the most beautiful monasteries in Russia and the historical and spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church or visit the famous State Tretyakov Gallery National Museum of Fine Art.

Included in our time spent in Moscow is two nights at the five-star Marriott Royal Aurora, or similar. Located in Moscow city centre, and within walking distance of Red Square and the Bolshoi Theatre, this luxury hotel offers spacious accommodation with butler service for each guest room — the only hotel in Moscow to offer this fine service. Why not extend your stay in Moscow with additional nights to explore more of the city at your leisure or have time to take in a performance at the world-renowned Bolshoi Theatre?

Tickets need to be pre-booked and are subject to schedule and availability. Volgograd, Russia Standing on the banks of the Volga, Stalingrad, as the city was known in Soviet times, was the dramatic scene of one of the most important Second World War battles. The Russians heroically turned back the Nazi advance here to alter the course of the war. We visit the poignantly sobering Mamayev Kurgan war memorial, followed by an informative museum visit. Each Silk Road departure has a number of days or half days onboard our private train as we travel to our next destination.

This time offers the opportunity to unwind and reflect on the many sights and sounds we have experienced or are about to experience on our rail journey so far. Chat to your fellow passengers, listen to a talk on the history of the Silk Road and its people along the route, simply relax with a good book or enjoy the ever changing landscape outside your window as it unfolds before you. Khiva, Uzbekistan From Urgench we travel to the ancient city of Khiva, founded 2, years ago.

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A truly magnificent sight to behold, it rises out of the desert to reveal a wealth of impressive architecture. A unique experience that is not to be missed. Situated between the Kara Kum desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range, Ashgabat is a relatively modern city built upon the ruins of the Silk Road city of Konjikala and the Soviet city built after the devastating earthquake of Highlights on our visit include a visit to the National Museum and Kipchak Mosque.

Merv, Turkmenistan From Mary we transfer to the ancient and mainly unrestored remains of Merv.