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ISBN 13: 9789500414234
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This suggests that, as much as the Italian sample, the perceptions of high self-efficacy could have a positive effect on perceiving better mental health. However, the two-way interaction was not significant, meaning that H 3 was not supported for the Spanish sample. As far as the pull factor was considered Table 4 , it is possible to note that both Pursue Own Interests and Perceived Self-Efficacy had a negative effect on mental health. However, the two-way interaction was not significant, meaning that H 4 was not supported for the Spanish sample. The first goal of this study was to examine the relationship between reasons for early retirement and mental health status.
According to the first hypothesis, the push factor Pressure from Employer was positively related to poor mental health status whereas the pull factor Pursue Own Interests was negatively associated with it. This study demonstrates that the experience of forced early retirement represented a difficult psychosocial transition compared to that experienced by individuals who exit voluntarily to pursue their own interests.
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Our results support the conclusions of prior studies that suggest the existence of differences in post-employment life depending on the level of voluntariness concerned in retirement from the labor market Alcover et al. Conversely, pull factors, attracting individuals to engage in post-retirement activities, have an impact on their retirement adjustment and satisfaction Price, According to Noone, Stephens, and Alpass , our results confirmed the importance of the pre-retirement phase, during which people experience their transition from work to retirement.
The way people experience this phase forced vs. This is in line with the second result of this inquiry, which concerns the differences between Italian and Spanish retirees. The two samples differed with respect to the presence of push and pull factors. In Spain the push factor, Pressure from Employer , was prevalent and had the highest score among reasons for early retirement, whereas in Italy the pull factor of Pursue Own Interests was the most important aspect that urged workers to exit early.
These findings confirm that the two countries under consideration seem to differ substantially in employment opportunities for and perceived value of older workers. Companies have cut high salary expenses and replaced senior people with younger, cheaper personnel. Compared with the Spanish situation, the Italian ratio of forced retirement is relatively low and early exits from the labor force have not been promoted by public policies.
The human cost of the Spanish "formula" for retirement also has an impact on the personal life of each employee who retires early Alba, and our findings support negative outcomes of forced retirement. In fact, the Spanish sample showed a worsened mental health status because the perception of being forced to retire probably prevailed among the participants. Van Solinge and Henkens found that the perception of voluntary vs.
The difference seems to lie also in the resources available for retirement. In this study, Perceived Self-Efficacy , as a personal resource, has been studied. A third significant result showed that self-efficacy moderated the effect of the pull factor Pursue Own Interests by diminishing the risk of poor mental health of Italian retirees. Empirical evidence that self-efficacy might be an important predictor of the ability to adjust successfully to retirement comes from the work of Taylor and Shore Also, Barnes-Farrel showed that higher self-efficacy was associated with lower pre-retirement anxiety.
Our findings corroborate these theories and provide further evidence of the importance of considering self-efficacy, as done in this study, when addressing mental health status of early retirees. Our results also confirm the assertion that a sense of mastery or personal control may be a key psychosocial resource for mental health in retirement Donaldson et al. In fact, when some adverse organizational aspects cannot be avoided -and therefore lead to people leving the labor force- the feeling of personal control over the transition could help individuals maintain active lifestyles and nourish personal self-concepts to counter the loss of former professional roles.
This difference probably lies in the social, legal, and economic contexts of forced retirement of each of the two countries. Spanish participants have a higher score for the Pressure from Employers than Italians and the average score for Pursuing Own Interests is very low. It is thus possible to conclude that the institutionalization of early retirement observed in the Spanish case could set disincentives for the continued education and motivation of older workers rather than viewing them as a key resource in an economy affected by population ageing, with lifestyle consequences after exit from the labor force.
The results of this study must be interpreted in the light of certain limitations that raise issues for future research. The cross-sectional design does not allow us to establish the direction of relations between reasons for early retirement and mental health status. If the retirement decision implies a long-term sequential process within the lifespan Settersten, , longitudinal studies are then necessary to describe and explain their complex pathways and the consequences of early retirement.
This comparative study has led to an exploration of the differences in the Italian and Spanish socio-economic contexts, which have experienced very different labor force changes over the last few years.
Despite this, the comparison between Italy and Spain requires future research to study the specific social, legal, and economic systems of these two European countries, as well as to consider the potential effects of cultural factors specific to each country. The results of our study support the concept of retirement as a process involving a variety of factors, in line with recent research e.
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In addition, we have found that the consequences for individuals can be very different depending on how the process unfolds. This has important practical implications since the effects on health can be very different depending on how people experienced retirement.
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Population ageing is one of the most urgent challenges that is currently faced by both developed and developing countries United Nations, To conclude, during the last decade figures of individuals involved in early retirement have grown in many European countries. Meanwhile, it has been well established that outcomes of motivations for early retirement affect personal, social, and organizational domains.
Further studies can contribute to more in-depth research into the impact of early retirement forced vs. We also anticipate that it will be possible to identify typologies of organizational exit as well as typologies of post-retirement adjustment which would be an important further nuance in determining the effects of motivational impacts on early-retirement as an important life transition.
The authors of this article declare no conflicts of interest. Adams, G. A Retirement: Reasons, Processes, and Results. New York: Springer. Aiken, L. Multiple Regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Alba, A.